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IntCal13 Data Sets

A summary of the datasets used for IntCal13 is given below with references to the original datasets. These are catalogued by the institute where the 14C measurements were made in some cases and in others by the first author on the publications. Dataset number is a historical construct and makes no reflection on the date of publication. Lab codes can be found on the Radiocarbon website at www.radiocarbon.org.

Tree Rings


University of Washington
Tree-rings from Pacific Northwest Douglas fir, Californian Sequoia, Alaskan Sitka Spruce, and from the German Oak and Irish Oak chronologies.
Lab code: QL
Dataset number: 1

Stuiver, M., and Braziunas, T. (1993). Sun, ocean, climate and atmospheric 14CO2: an evaluation of causal and spectral relationships. Holocene 3: 289-305.

Stuiver, M., Reimer, P. J., and Braziunas, T. F. (1998). High-precision radiocarbon age calibration for terrestrial and marine samples. Radiocarbon 40:1127-1151.

Note: IntCal04 (Reimer et al. 2004) introduced updates to the calendar age of the German Pine measurements and some reinstated tree-rings from German oaks affected by beetles which previously could not be dendrodated (cf. Friedrich et al., 2004)

Queen's University Belfast
Tree-rings from Irish Oak and German Oak chronologies
Lab code: UB
Dataset number: 2

Pearson, G. W., Pilcher, J. R., Baillie, M. G. L., Corbett, D. M., and Qua, F. (1986). High-Precision C-14 Measurement of Irish Oaks to Show the Natural C-14 Variations from AD 1840 to 5210 BC Radiocarbon 28: 911-934.

McCormac, F. G., Hogg, A. G., Higham, T. F. G., Lynch-Stieglitz, J., Broecker, W. S., Baillie, M. G. L., Palmer, J., Xiong, L., Pilcher, J. R., Brown, D., and Hoper, S. T. (1998). Temporal variation in the interhemispheric C-14 offset. Geophysical Research Letters 25: 1321-1324.

Hogg, A. G., McCormac, F. G., Higham, T. F. G., Reimer, P. J., Baillie, M. G. L., and Palmer, J. G. (2002). High-precision radiocarbon measurements of contemporaneous tree-ring dated wood from the British Isles and New Zealand: AD 1850-950. Radiocarbon 44: 633-640.

McCormac, F. G., Bayliss, A., Baillie, M. G. L., and Brown, D. M. (2004). Radiocarbon calibraton in the Anglo-Saxon periord: AD 495-725. Radiocarbon 46: 1123-1125

Pearson, G. W., Becker, B., and Qua, F. (1993). High-Precision C-14 Measurement of German and Irish Oaks to Show the Natural C-14 Variations from 7890 to 5000 BC. Radiocarbon 35: 93-104

McCormac, F. G., A. Bayliss, et al. (2008). Extended radiocarbon calibration in the Anglo-Saxon period, AD 395-485 and AD 735-805. Radiocarbon 50(1): 11-17.

University of Waikato
Tree-rings from Irish Oak chronology
Lab code: Wk
Dataset number: 3

McCormac, F. McCormac, F. G., Hogg, A. G., Higham, T. F. G., Lynch-Stieglitz, J., Broecker, W. S., Baillie, M. G. L., Palmer, J., Xiong, L., Pilcher, J. R., Brown, D., and Hoper, S. T. (1998). Temporal variation in the interhemispheric C-14 offset. Geophysical Research Letters 25: 1321-1324.

Hogg, A. G., McCormac, F. G., Higham, T. F. G., Reimer, P. J., Baillie, M. G. L., and Palmer, J. G. (2002). High-precision radiocarbon measurements of contemporaneous tree-ring dated wood from the British Isles and New Zealand: AD 1850-950. Radiocarbon 44: 633-640.

Hogg, A., Palmer, J., Boswijk, G., Reimer, P., and Brown, D. (2009). Investigating the interhemispheric C-14 offset in the 1st millennium AD and assessment of laboratory bias and calibration errors. Radiocarbon 51, 1177-1186.

University of Groningen
Tree-rings from German Oak chronology
Lab Code: GrN
Dataset number: 4

de Jong, A. F. M., Becker, B., and Mook, W. G. (1986). High-precision calibration of the radiocarbon time scale, 3930-3230 cal BC. Radiocarbon 28: 939-941.

de Jong, A. F. M., Becker, B., and Mook, W. G. (1989). Corrected calibration of the radiocarbon time scale. Radiocarbon 31: 201-210.

Vogel, J. C., and van der Plicht, J. (1993). Calibration Curve for Short-Lived Samples, 1900-3900 BC. Radiocarbon 35: 87-91.

van der Plicht, J., Jansma, E., and Kars, H. (1995). The ''Amsterdam Castle'': A case study of wiggle matching and the proper calibration curve. Radiocarbon 37, 965-968.

Heidelberger Akademie der Wissenschaften
Tree-rings from German Oak & Pine chronology
Lab code: Hd
Dataset number: 5

Kromer, B., and Becker, B. (1993). German Oak and Pine C-14 Calibration, 7200-9439 BC. Radiocarbon 35: 125-135.

Kromer, B., and Spurk, M. (1998). Revision and tentative extension of the tree-ring based C-14 calibration, 9200-11,855 cal BP. Radiocarbon 40: 1117-1125.

Kromer, B., Manning,S.W., Kuniholm, P.I., Newton, M.W., Spurk, M. & Levin, I. 2001. Regional 14CO2 offsets in the troposphere: magnitude, mechanisms, and consequences. Science 294: 2529-2532.

Kromer, B., S. W. Manning, M. Friedrich, S. Talamo and N. Trano (2010). 14C Calibration in the 2nd and 1st Millennia BC Eastern Mediterranean Radiocarbon Comparison Project (EMRCP). Radiocarbon 52(3): 875-886.

Hua, Q., Barbetti, M., Fink, D., Kaiser, K. F., Friedrich, M., Kromer, B., Levchenko, V. A., Zoppi, U., Smith, A. M., and Bertuch, F. (2009). Atmospheric 14C variations derived from tree rings during the early Younger Dryas. Quaternary Science Reviews 28, 2982-2990.

Note: IntCal04 (Reimer et al. 2004) introduced updates to the calendar age of the German Pine measurements and some reinstated tree-rings from German oaks affected by beetles which previously could not be dendrodated (cf. Friedrich et al., 2004) as well as previously unpublished data (some of which from the East Mediterranean Radiocarbon Comparison Project is included in Kromer, B, Manning, S, Friedrich, M, Talamo, S & Trano, N. 2009. 14C calibration in the 2nd and 1st millennia BC - Eastern Mediterranean Radiocarbon Comparison Project (EMRCP). In: 20th International Radiocarbon Conference Kona, Hawaii.

CSIR, Pretoria
Labcode: Pta
Tree-rings from German Oak chronology
Dataset number: 6

Vogel, J. C., and Vanderplicht, J. (1993). Calibration Curve for Short-Lived Samples, 1900-3900 BC. Radiocarbon 35: 87-91.

Center for Accelerator Mass Spectrometry
Tree-rings from Irish Oak chronology
Labcode: CAMS
Dataset number: 7

Three decadal measurements of Belfast Irish Oak processed to cellulose at Queen's University Belfast were introduced in the IntCal04 data set. Results are from multiple AMS targets with the error taken as the larger of the standard deviation in the mean and square root of the variance.

University of California, Irvine
Tree-rings from Bristlecone Pine chronology
Labcode: UCIAMS
Dataset number: 8

Taylor RE, Southon J. 2013. Reviewing the Mid-First Millennium BC 14C 'warp' using 14C/bristlecone pine data. Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section B: Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms 294(0):440-3

Varved Lake Sediments

Bronk Ramsey, et al
Lake Suigetsu varved sediments
Labcode: OXA, SUERC, GRA
Dataset number: 9

Christopher Bronk Ramsey, Richard A. Staff, Charlotte L. Bryant, Fiona Brock, Hiroyuki Kitagawa, Johannes van der Plicht, Gordon Schlolaut, Michael H. Marshall, Achim Brauer, Henry F. Lamb, Rebecca L. Payne, Pavel E. Tarasov, Tsuyoshi Haraguchi, Katsuya Gotanda, Hitoshi Yonenobu, Yusuke Yokoyama, Ryuji Tada, Takeshi Nakagawa. (2012). A Complete Terrestrial Radiocarbon Record for 11.2 to 52.8 kyr B.P. Science 338:370.

Corals and Foraminifera

E. Bard et al.
Corals from Barbados, Tahiti, Mururoa and New Guinea
Labcode: GifA
Dataset number: 10

Bard, E, Hamelin, B, Fairbanks, RG, Zindler, A. 1990. Calibration of the 14C timescale over the past 30,000 years using mass spectrometric U-Th ages from Barbados corals. Nature 345: 405-410.

Bard E, Arnold M, Hamelin B, Tisnerat-Laborde N, Cabioch G. 1998. Radiocarbon calibration by means of mass spectrometric 230Th/234U and 14C ages of corals. An updated data base including samples from Barbados, Mururoa and Tahiti. Radiocarbon 40: 1085-1092.

Bard, E, Menot-Combes, G, Rostek, F. 2004. Present status of radiocarbon calibration and comparison records based on Polynesian corals and Iberian Margin sediments, Radiocarbon 46: 1189-1202.

R.G. Fairbanks et al.
Corals from Araki, Barbados and Kirimati
Labcode: CAMS, Gif and KIA
Dataset number:11

Fairbanks, RG, Mortlock, RA, Chiu, TC, Cao, L, Kaplan, A, Guilderson, TP, Fairbanks, TW, Bloom, AL, Grootes, PM & Nadeau, MJ. 2005. Radiocarbon calibration curve spanning 0 to 50,000 years BP based on paired Th-230/U-234/U-238 and C-14 dates on pristine corals. Quaternary Science Reviews 24(16-17): 1781-96.

R. L. Edwards et al.
Corals from Huon Peninsula, Papua New Guinea
Labcodes: AA and WHOI
Dataset number: 12

Edwards, RL, Beck, JW, Burr, GS, Donahue, DJ, Chappell, JMA. Bloom, AL, Druffel, ERM., Taylor, FW. 1993. A large drop in atmospheric 14C/ 12C and reduced melting in the Younger Dryas, documented with 230Th ages of corals. Science 260: 962-968.

G.S. Burr et al.
Corals from Vanuatu and Papua New Guinea
Labcode: AA
Dataset number: 13

Burr, GS, Beck, JW, Taylor, FW, Recy, J, Edwards, RL, Cabioch, G, Correge, T, Donahue, DJ, O'Malley, JM. 1998. A high-resolution radiocarbon calibration between 11,700 and 12,400 calendar years BP derived from 230Th ages of corals from Espiritu Santo Island, Vanuatu. Radiocarbon40: 1093-1105.

Burr, GS, Galang, C, Taylor, FW, Gallup, CD, Edwards, RL, Cutler, KB, Quirk, B. 2004. Radiocarbon results from a 13ka BP coral from the Huon Peninsula, Papua New Guinea. Radiocarbon 46: 1211-1224.

K. B. Cutler et al.
Corals from Vanuatu and Papua New Guinea
Labcode: not given
Dataset number: 14

Cutler, KB, Gray, SC, Burr, GS, Edwards, RL, Taylor, FW, Cabioch, G, Beck, JW, Cheng, H, and Moore, J. 2004. Radiocarbon calibration to 50 kyr BP with paired 14C and 230Th dating of corals from Vanuatu and Papua New Guinea. Radiocarbon 46: 1127-1160.

K. A. Hughen et al.
Foraminifera from Cariaco Basin varved sediments
Labcode: CAMS
Dataset number: 15

Hughen, KA, Southon, JR, Bertrand, CJH, Frantz, B, Zermeno, P. 2004. Cariaco Basin calibration update: revisions to calendar and 14C chronologies for core PL07-58PC. Radiocarbon 46: 1161-1187.

Hughen, KA, Lehman S, Southon J, Overpeck J, Marchal O, Herring C, Turnbull J. 2004. C-14 activity and global carbon cycle changes over the past 50,000 years. Science 303 (5655): 202-207.

Hughen, KA, Southon, JR, Lehman, SJ, Overpeck, JT. 2000. Synchronous radiocarbon and climate shifts during the last deglaciation. Science 290: 1951-54.

Stuiver, M. and Braziunuas, TF.
Marine Model
Labcode:
Dataset number: 16

Stuiver, M and Braziunas, TF. 1993. Modeling atmospheric 14C influences and 14C ages of marine samples TO 10,000 BC. Radiocarbon 35: 137-189.

Konrad A Hughen, Mike G L Baillie, Edouard Bard, J Warren Beck, Chanda J H Bertrand, Paul G Blackwell, Caitlin E Buck, George S Burr, Kirsten B Cutler, Paul E Damon, Richard L Edwards, Richard G Fairbanks, Michael Friedrich, Thomas P Guilderson, Bernd Kromer, Gerry McCormac, Sturt Manning, Christopher Bronk Ramsey, Paula J Reimer, Ron W Reimer, Sabine Remmele, John R Southon, Minze Stuiver, Sahra Talamo, F W Taylor, Johannes van der Plicht, Constanze E Weyhenmeyer. 2004. MARINE04 marine radiocarbon age calibration, 0-26 cal kyr BP Radiocarbon 46: 1059-1086.

P J Reimer, M G L Baillie, E Bard, A Bayliss, J W Beck, P G Blackwell, C Bronk Ramsey, C E Buck, G S Burr, R L Edwards, M Friedrich, P M Grootes, T P Guilderson, I Hajdas, T J Heaton, A G Hogg, K A Hughen, K F Kaiser, B Kromer, F G McCormac, S W Manning, R W Reimer, D A Richards, J R Southon, S Talamo, C S M Turney, J van der Plicht, C E Weyhenmeyer,2009, INTCAL09 and MARINE09 radiocarbon age calibration curves, 0-50,000 years cal BP Radiocarbon, Vol 51, Nr 4, p 1111-1150.

Durand, N. et al
Tahiti IODP core
Labcode:
Dataset number: 17

Nicolas Durand, Pierre Deschamps, Edouard Bard, Bruno Hamelin, Gilbert Camoin, Alexander L Thomas, Gideon M Henderson, Yusuke Yokoyama, Hiroyuki Matsuzaki. Comparison of 14C and U-Th Ages in Corals from IODP #310 Cores Offshore Tahiti Radiocarbon 55(2):xxxx-yyyy.

Cariaco Basin- Hulu timescale
Foraminifera from Cariaco Basin non-varved sediments
Labcode: CAMS, NSRL, and UCIAMS
Dataset number: 20

Hughen, K, Southon, J, Lehman, S, Bertrand, C & Turnbull, J. 2006. Marine-derived C-14 calibration and activity record for the past 50,000 years updated from the Cariaco Basin. Quaternary Science Reviews 25(23-24): 3216-27.

Iberian Margin- Hulu timescale
Foraminifera from Iberian Margin non-varved sediments
Labcode: KIA, GifA, OS
Dataset number: 21

Bard, E, Rostek, F & Menot-Combes, G. 2004. A better radiocarbon clock. Science 303(5655): 178-9.

Bard, E, Rostek, F & Menot-Combes, G. 2004. Radiocarbon calibration beyond 20,000 14C yr B.P. by means of planktonic foraminifera of the Iberian Margin. Quaternary Research 61(2):204-14.

Shackleton, NJ, Fairbanks, RG, Chiu, TC & Parrenin, F. 2004. Absolute calibration of the Greenland time scale: implications for Antarctic time scales and for Delta C-14. Quaternary Science Reviews 23(14-15): 1513-22.

Pakistan Margin- Hulu timescale
Foraminifera from Pakistan Margin non-varved sediments
Labcode: SacA
Dataset number: 22

Bard E, Menot G, Licari L. 2009. Radiocarbon calibration-comparison records based on marine sediments from the Pakistan and Iberian Margins. Geophysical Research Abstracts 11:EGU2009-6985.

Speleothems

University of California, Irvine
Speliothems from Hulu cave
Labcode: UCIAMS
Dataset number: 24

Southon J, Noronha AL, Cheng H, Edwards RL, Wang YJ. 2012. A high-resolution record of atmospheric C-14 based on Hulu Cave speleothem H82. Quaternary Science Reviews 33:32-41.

University of Arizona
Speliothems from Bahamas GB89-25-3 core
Labcode: AA
Dataset number: 25

Dirk L. Hoffmann, J. Warren Beck, David A. Richards, Peter L. Smart, Joy S. Singarayer, Tricia Ketchmark, Chris J. Hawkesworth. 2010. Towards radiocarbon calibration beyond 28 ka using speleothems from the Bahamas,Earth and Planetary Science Letters,289:1-10.

University of Arizona
Speliothems from Bahamas GB89-24-1 core
Labcode: AA
Dataset number: 26

J. Warren Beck, David A. Richards, R. Lawrence Edwards, Bernard W. Silverman, Peter L. Smart, Douglas J. Donahue, Sofia Hererra-Osterheld, George. S. Burr, Leal Calsoyas, A. J. Timothy Jull, Dana Biddulph. 2001. Extremely Large Variations of Atmospheric 14C Concentration During the Last Glacial Period Science 292:2453

Additional references:

Friedrich, M., Remmele, S., Kromer, B., Hofmann, J., Spurk, M., Kaiser, K. F., Orcel, C., and Kueppers, M. (2004). The 12,460-year Hohenheim oak and pine tree-ring chronology from Central Europe - A unique annual record for radiocarbon calibration and palaeo-environment reconstructions. Radiocarbon 46: 1111-1122.

Reimer, PJ, et al., 2004, IntCal04 Atmospheric radiocarbon age calibration, 26-0 ka BP, Radiocarbon 46:1026-1058